Penerbitan Terkini

masri binti ayob;mohd zakree bin ahmad nazri.  (2020).  optimizing port and logistic solutions for container terminal: a simulation study on westports.  -

rahmad kurniawan, siti norul huda sheikh abdullah, fitra lestari , mohd zakree ahmad nazri, akhmad mujahidin, noridayu adnan.  (2020).  clustering and correlation methods for predicting coronavirus covid 19 risk analysis in pandemic countries.  - the 8th international conference on cyber and it service management (citsm 2020).  1-5. 

k jamal, rahmad kurniawan, a s batubara, mohd zakree ahmad nazri, f lestari and p papilo.  (2020).  text classification on islamic jurisprudence using machine learning techniques.  - journal of physics: conference series.  1-6. 

mohd zakree bin ahmad nazri;seri manja bte abdul wahab;rohayu bt. abdul ghani;nor liza bt. abdullah;fatimah binti othman;norizwati binti ibrahim;farizan binti othman;sazura binti ramli;siti hajar binti jamaluddin;rozilawati binti razali;mohd najib bin adu.  (2020).  pembangunan model analitik dan alat risikan bisnes untuk pengurusan staf ukm.  -

shamsan gaber, mohd zakree ahmad nazri, nazlia omar, salwani abdullah.  (2020).  part-of-speech (pos) tagger for malay language using naive bayes and k-nearest neighbor model.  - journal of critical reviews.  248-257. 

mohd zakree bin ahmad nazri;seri manja bte abdul wahab;zulaiha binti ali othman;salwani binti abdullah;hafiz bin mohd sarim;farizan binti othman;sazura binti ramli;zalinda binti othman;nor samsiah binti sani.  (2020).  pembangunan model ramalan produktiviti penyelidikan ukm menggunakan pendekatan pembelajaran mesin.  -

b s negara, r kurniawan, m z a nazri, s n h s abdullah, r w saputra and a ismanto.  (2020).  riau forest fire prediction using supervised machine learning.  - journal of physics: conference series.  1-7. 

haslina binti arshad;hanilah binti hasan;norleyza binti jailani;siti aishah bt. hanawi;elankovan a/l a sundararajan;tengku siti meriam binti tengku wook;nur fazidah binti elias;mohd zakree bin ahmad nazri;ruzzakiah binti jenal;mohammad faidzul bin nasrudi.  (2019).  ukm mobile app.  - 1-6. 

masri binti ayob;abdul razak bin hamdan;mohd zakree bin ahmad nazri.  (2019).  solving combinatorial optimisation with aoristic problems using hyper-heuristic approaches.  - 1-9. 

mayas aljibawi, mohd zakree ahmad nazri, zalinda othman.  (2019).  mdss-stream: a data stream clustering algorithm for multi-dimensional density data.  - aus journal.  159-167. 

hossam m. j. mustafa, masri ayob, mohd zakree ahmad nazri,graham kendall.  (2019).  an improved adaptive memetic differential evolution optimization algorithms for data clustering problems.  - plos one.  1-17. 

mohd zakree bin ahmad nazri, rohayu abd ghani, salwani abdullah, mas ayu, r nor samsiah.  (2019).  predicting academician publication performance using decision tree.  - international journal of recent technology and engineering.  180-185. 

hossam m. j. mustafa, masri ayob, mohd zakree ahmad nazri, sawsan abu-taleb.  (2019).  multi-objectives memetic discrete differential evolution algorithm for solving the container pre-marshalling problem.  - journal of information and communication technology.  77-96. 

esam taha yassen, masri ayob, alaa abdalqhar jihad, mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2019).  hyper heuristic for solving quay crane scheduling problem.  - journal of southwest jiaotong university.  1-14. 

zulaiha ali othman, noraini ismail, mohd zakree ahmad nazri, hamidah jantan.  (2019).  development of talent model based on publication performance using apriori technique.  - international journal of advanced computer science and applications.  631-640. 

rahmad kurniawan, mohd zakree ahmad nazri, siti norul huda abdullah, jemaima che hamzah, rado yendra, westi oktaviana.  (2019).  automatic rule generator via fp-growth for eye diseases diagnosis.  - international journal on advanced science, engineering and information technology.  960-966. 

s.n.h.s. abdullah, w.f. fauzi, m.n. sudin, n.n. zahari, z. a. rahman, a.ismail, n. r. m. suradi, a.s. rambely, n. sarnon, a. h. shaari, s. samrun, n. arsad, m.h.m. saad, m. mohd, m. ayob, k.v. jyn, k. a. z. nazri, r. yaakub, ariffin,m.z.a.na.  (2018).  assessment of self-identity among teens towards self-crime prevention program.  - cyber resilience conference 2018. 

mayas aljibawi, mohd zakree ahmaf nazri, zalinda othman.  (2018).  a survey on clustering density based data stream algorithm.  - international journal of engineering & technology.  147-153. 

mohammed s. ibrahem, mohd zakree ahmad nazri, zalinda othman.  (2018).  a multi-objective particle swarm optimization for wireless sensor network deployment.  - international journal of engineering and technology. 

abdul razak bin hamdan;mohd zakree bin ahmad nazri;azuraliza binti abu bakar.  (2018).  danger theory based algorithms for abrupt change detection.  -

omar salim abdullah, salwani abdullah, hafiz mohd sarim, mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2018).  optimization approaches in aircraft landing problems.  - science international. 

xiao fei yang, masri ayob & mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2018).  an investigation of timetable satisfaction factors for a practical university course timetabling problem.  - proceedings of the 2017 6th international conference on electrical engineering and informatics. 

hossam m. j. mustafa, masri ayob, mohd zakree ahmad nazri & sawsan abu-taleb.  (2018).  multi-objectives memetic discrete differential evolution algorithm for solving the container pre-marshalling problem.  - the 4 th international multi-conference on artificial intelligence technology (m-cait 2018). 

mohd zakree ahmad nazri, rohayu abdul ghani, mas ayu che razali.  (2018).  using data mining to predict academician publication output.  - asia proceedings of social sciences (apss) aic 2018: global development in humanities, education and civilization.  110-114. 

rahmad kurniawan, akbarizan, khairunnas jamal, afrizal nur, mohd zakree ahmad nazri, deby kholilah.  (2018).  advise-giving expert systems based on islamic jurisprudence for treating drugs and substance abuse.  - journal of theoretical and applied information technology. 

bahareh nakisa, mohammad naim rastgoo, mohd zakree ahmad nazri, md. jan nordin.  (2018).  target searching in unknown environment of multi-robot system using a hybrid particle swarm optimization.  - journal of theoretical and applied information technology. 

mohd zakree ahmad nazri, tri basuki kurniawan & abdul razak hamdan.  (2018).  sains data penerokaan pengetahuan dari data raya.  - 26. 

abdul razak hamdan, mohd zakree ahmad nazri & azuraliza abu bakar.  (2018).  sains data penerokaan pengetahuan dari data raya.  - 25. 

s. n. h. s abdullah, farah aqilah bohani, mohd zakree ahmad nazri, yasmin jeffri, mohammed ariff abdullah, md nawawi junoh, zainal abidin kasim.  (2018).  amenities surrounding commercial serial crime prediction at greater valley and kuala lumpur using k-means clustering.  - jurnal teknologi. 

mohd zakree ahmad nazri, tri basuki kurniawan, abdul razak hamdan, salwani abdullah, mohammed azlan mis.  (2018).  pembangunan taksonomi dari teks melayu menggunakan algoritma kunang-kunang pembahagi dua sama.  - gema online journal of language studies. 

abdul razak hamdan, azuraliza abu bakar & mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2018).  sains data penerokaan pengetahuan dari data raya.  - 290. 

hani a.k. ihlayyel, nurfahdlina mohd sharef, mohd zakree ahmad nazri and azuraliza abu bakar.  (2018).  an enhanced feature representation based on linear regression model for stock market prediction.  - intelligent data analysis.  45-76. 

yang xiao fei, masri ayob & mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2017).  modeling a practical university course timetabling problem with reward and penalty objective function: case study ftsm-ukm.  - 8th multidisciplinary international conference on scheduling: theory and applications, mista2017. 

esam taha yassen, anas arram, masri ayob, mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2017).  a constructive heuristic for police patrol routing problems.  - pertanika journal science and technology.  87-96. 

xiao fei yang, masri ayob & mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2017).  an investigation of timetable satisfaction factors for a practical university course timetabling problem.  - reactive research for sol. 

wathiq laftah al-yaseen, zulaiha ali othman and mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2017).  real-time multi-agent system for an adaptive intrusion detection system.  - pattern recognition letters.  56-64. 

esam taha yassen, masri ayob, mohd zakree ahmad nazri, nasser r. sabar.  (2017).  an adaptive hybrid algorithm for vehicle routing problems with time windows.  - computers & industrial engineering.  382-391. 

muslihah wook, zawiyah m. yusof, mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2017).  educational data mining acceptance among undergraduate studens.  - education and information technologies.  1195-1216. 

wathiq laftah al-yaseen, zulaiha ali othman, mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2016).  a large data exchange method for multi-agent in java agent development framework.  - international review of management and marketing.  27-32. 

nik nur aisyah nik ghazali, siti norul huda sheikh abdullah,mohd zakree ahmad nazri, siti zaharah abd. rahman, md nawawi junoh.  (2016).  crime population pattern mining using k-means clustering case study in kuala lumpur and selangor.  - proceeding 5th international technical conference 2016 (itc2016).  307-313. 

salam salameh shreem, salwani abdullah and mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2016).  hybrid feature selection algorithm using symmetrical uncertainty and a harmony search algorithm.  - international journal of systems science.  1312-1329. 

esam taha yassen, masri ayob & mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2016).  the effectiveness of selection mechanisms on multi parent crossover operator in solving vehicle routing problem with time windows.  - reactive research for sol. 

esam taha yassen, anas arram, masri ayob & mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2016).  a constructive heuristic for police patrol routing problems.  - negative associative clas. 

anas arram, masri ayob & mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2016).  multi-parent order crossover in genetic algorithm for combinatorial optimization problems.  - negative associative clas. 

esam taha yassen, anas arram, masri ayob & mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2016).  a constructive heuristic for police patrol routing problems.  - multi-conference on artificial intelligence technology (m-cait 2016). 

siti zaharah abd.rahman, siti norul huda sheikh abdullah, mohd zakree bin ahmad nazri.  (2016).  the analysis for gait energy image based on statistical methods.  - proceeding of 2016 international conference on advances in electrical, electronic and system engineering (icaeese 2016).  124-127. 

wathiq laftah al-yaseen, zulaiha ali othman and mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2016).  exchanging large data object in multi-agent systems.  - proceedings of the international conference on applied science and technology 2016 (icast 16), aip conference proceedings.  020018-1-020018-7. 

siti sakira kamaruddin, azuraliza abu bakab, abdul razak hamdan, fauzias mat nor, mohd zakree ahmad nazri, zulaiha ali othman and ghassan saleh hussein.  (2015).  a text mining system for deviation detection in financial documents.  - intelligent data analysis.  19-44. 

nakisa b., rastgoo m.n., nasrudin m.f., nazri m.z.a..  (2015).  a multi-swarm particle swarm optimization with local search on multi-robot search system.  - journal of theoretical and applied information technology.  129-136. 

anahita ghazvini, siti norul huda sheikh abdullah, mohd zakree bin ahmad nazri , md nawawi junoh & zainal abidin bin kasim.  (2015).  biography commercial serial crime analysis using enhanced dynamic neural network.  - 2015 seventh international conference of soft computing and pattern recognition (socpar 2015). 

laftah al-yaseen w., ali othman z., ahmad nazri m.z..  (2015).  hybrid modified k -means with c4.5 for intrusion detection systems in multiagent systems.  - scientific world journal. 

mohammad naim rastgoo, bahareh nakisa and mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2015).  a hybrid of modified pso and local search on a multi-robot search system.  - international journal of advanced robotic systems.  1-9. 

esam taha yassen, masri ayob, mohd zakree ahmad nazri and nasser r. sabar.  (2015).  a hybrid meta-heuristic algorithm for vehicle routing problem with time windows.  - international journal on artificial intelligence tools.  1550021-1-23. 

esam taha yassen, masri ayob, and mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2015).  the effect of hybridizing local search algorithms with harmony search for the vehicle routing problem with time windows.  - journal of theoretical and applied information technology.  43-58. 

esam taha yassen, masri ayob, mohd zakree ahmad nazri and nasser r. sabar.  (2015).  meta-harmony search algorithm for the vehicle routing problem with time windows.  - information sciences.  140-158. 

anna arram, masri ayob, mohd zakree ahmad nazri, ahmad abunadi.  (2015).  bird mating optimizer for discrete berth allocation problem.  - the 5th international conference on electrical engineering and informatics.  450-455. 

muslihah wook, zawiyah m. yusof and mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2015).  the acceptance of educational data mining technology among students in public institutions of higher learning in malaysia.  - 2015 4th international conference on network and computer science (icncs 2015). 

muslihah wook, zawiyah m. yusof and mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2015).  the acceptance of educational data mining technology among students in public institutions of higher learning in malaysia.  - international journal of future computer and communication.  112-117. 

nabilah filzah mohd. radzuan, zalinda othman, azuraliza abu bakar, mohd. zakree ahmad nazri.  (2015).  representing uncertain time series by using enhanced symbolic aggregate approximation.  - proceedings of the 2015 icbts international academic research conference in europe & america.  13-19. 

rahmad kurniawan, novi yanti, mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2014).  expert systems for self-diagnosing of eye diseases using na´ve bayes.  - international conference on advanced informatics: concepts, theory and applications-icaicta 2014. 

bahareh nakisa, mohd zakree ahmad nazri, mohammad naim rastgoo and salwani abdullah.  (2014).  a survey: particle swarm optimization based algorithms to solve premature convergence problem.  - journal of computer science.  1758-1765. 

waqas khalid obeidy, lam meng chun, haslina arshad, mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2014).  cine-mar : mobile augmented reality based advertising application for cinemas.  - proceedings of the 3rd international conference on interactive digital media (icidm 2014).  262-267. 

rahmad kurniawan, mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2014).  a comparative study of decision tree, artificial neural network and rough set theory: case study on housing dataset.  - 1st international conference on science and technology for sustainability (icostechs 2014).  51-57. 

musliha wook, zawiyah m. yusof and mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2014).  data mining technology adoption in institutions of higher learning: a conceptual framework incorporating technology readiness index model and technology acceptance model 3.  - journal of applied sciences.  2014:1-10. 

mohammad naim rastgoo, bahareh nakisa, mohammad faidzul nasrudin, mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2014).  a critical evaluation of literature on robot path planning in dynamic environment.  - journal of theoretical and applied information technology.  177-185. 

ahmed mohammed abbas, azuraliza abu bakar, mohd zakree ahmad.  (2014).  fast dynamic clustering soap messages based compression and aggregation model for enhanced performance of web services.  - journal of network and computer applications.  41:80-88. 

masri ayob, mohd zakree ahmad nazri, tri basuki kurniawan, yang xiao fei, esam taha yassen.  (2014).  a constructive heuristic for discreet berth allocation problems.  - international journal of advancements in computing technology.  6(2):31-36. 

salwani abdullah, nasser r. sabar, mohd zakree ahmad nazri, masri ayob.  (2014).  an exponential monte-carlo algorithm for feature selection problems.  - computers & industrial engineering.  67(2014):160-167. 

salam salameh shreem, salwani abdullah, mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2014).  hybridising harmony search with a markov blanket for gene selection problems.  - information sciences.  258(2014) 108-121. 

esam taha yassen, masri ayob, mohd zakree ahmad nazri and zulkifli ahmad.  (2013).  harmony search algorithm for vehicle routing problem with time windows.  - journal of applied sciences.  13(4):633-638. 

musliha wook, zawiyah m. yusof and mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2013).  preliminary overview of data mining technology for knowledge management system in institutions of higher learning.  - world academy of science, engineering and technology.  74:80-85. 

norlela samsudin, mazidah puteh, abdul razak hamdan, & mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2013).  immune based feature selection for opinion mining.  - proceedings of the world congress on engineering 2013 (wce 2013). 

norlela samsudin, mazidah puteh, abdul razak hamdan, mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2013).  normalization of noisy texts in malaysian online reviews.  - journal of information and communication technology.  147-159. 

norlela samsudin, mazidah puteh, abdul razak hamdan & mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2013).  mining opinion in online messages.  - international journal of advanced computer science and applications.  4(8):19-23. 

masri ayob, mohd zakree ahmad nazri, suhaila zainuddin and tri basuki kurniawan.  (2013).  component pick and place scheduling for surface mount device placement device placement machine.  - international journal of soft computing.  8(1):29-41. 

farah natasyah abdul hanan, abdul razak hamdan, azuraliza abu bakar, mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2013).  rough set knowledge model for classification of halal product certification status.  - research notes in information sciences.  12(23):135-139. 

yang xiao fei, masri ayob, mohd zakree ahmad nazri and zulkifli ahmad.  (2013).  a hierarchical approach for assigning examinations to timeslots and rooms: a case study.  - journal of engineering and applied sciences.  8(2):69-72. 

mohd zakree ahmad nazri, masri ayob, esam taha yassen.  (2013).  evolutionary iterated local search for rough set attribute reduction problems.  - international journal of advancements in computing technology.  200-208. 

masri ayob, mohd zakree ahmad nazri, yang xiao fei.  (2013).  local search heuristics for the one dimensional bin packing problems.  - journal of applied sciences.  13(6):919-923. 

masri ayob, mohammed hadwan, mohd zakree ahmad nazri and zulkifli ahmad.  (2013).  enhanced harmony search algorithm for nurse rostering problems.  - journal of applied sciences.  13(6):846-853. 

azuraliza abu bakar, zulaiha ali othman, mohd zakree ahmad nazri, abdul razak hamdan, hafiz mohd sarim, khairatul alyani badari, farah natasyah abdul hanan.  (2013).  classification of halal status for food product using data mining approach.  - advances in information sciences and service sciences.  5(15):42-59. 

masri ayob and mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2012).  improving the throughput of component placement machines by nozzle optimisation.  - international journal of systems signal control and engineering application.  5(2):31-46. 

othman, z., bakar, a.a., abdullah, s., zakree, m., nazri, a., sengalang, n.a..  (2012).  dynamic tabu search for dimensionality reduction in rough set.  - wseas transactions on computers.  11(4):89-100. 

mohd zakree ahmad nazri, nor emizan abdul majid, azuraliza abu bakar and hafiz mohd sarim.  (2012).  network intrusion prediction using associative classification method.  - asian journal of information technology.  11(5):153-159. 

rahmat hidayat, yazrina yahya, shahrul azman mohd noah, mohd zakree ahmad, abdul razak hamdan.  (2012).  semantic web portal in university research community framework.  - international journal on advanced science engineering information technology.  39-43. 

esam taha yassen, masri ayob, mohd zakree ahmad nazri and nasser r. sabar.  (2012).  multi-parent insertion crossover for vehicle routing problem with time windows.  - 2012 4th conference on data mining and optimization, dmo 2012;langkawi. 

norlela samsudin, mazidah puteh, abdul razak hamdan dan mohd zakree ahmad nazri,.  (2012).  is artificial immune system suitable for opinion mining?.  - 2012 4th conference on data mining and optimization, dmo 2012;langkawi. 

salam salameh shreem, salwani abdullah, mohd zakree ahmad nazri, malek alzaqebah.  (2012).  hybridizing relieff, mrmr filters and ga wrapper approaches for gene selection.  - journal of theoretical and applied information technology.  46(2):1034-1039. 

masri ayob!, abdul razak hamdan, salwani abdullah, zalinda othman, mohd zakree ahmad nazri, kiftiah abd razak, rohana tan, norashikin baharom, hilmiah abd ghafar, rashidah md dali and nasser r.  (2011).  intelligent examination timetabling software.  - procedia social and behavioral sciences -kongres pengajaran dan pembelajaran ukm, 2010. 

kharrousheh, a., abdullah, s., zakree, m., nazri, a..  (2011).  a modified tabu search approach for the clustering problem.  - journal of applied sciences.  11(19):3447-3453. 

mohd zakree ahmad nazri , siti mariyam shamsuddin, azuraliza abu bakar dan salwani abdullah.  (2011).  a hybrid approach for learning concept hierarchy from malay text using artificial immune network.  - natural computing : an international journal. volume 10, issue 1 (2011), page 275.  11047-010-9. 

masri ayob, mohd zakree ahmad nazri, abdul razak hamdan, erna budhiarti nababan and hafiz mohd sarim.  (2011).  state-of-the-art on reactive search.  - journal of computer science and network security.  11(10):196-200. 

othman, z.a., hamdan, a.r., abu bakar, a., zainudin, s., sarim, h.m., nazri, m.z.a., othman, z., (...), abdul ghani, a.t..  (2011).  mynda - an intelligent data mining application generator.  - 2nd international visual informatics conference, ivic 2011; selangor (lecture notes in computer science). 

siti sakira kamaruddin, azuraliza abu bakar, abdul razak hamdan, mohd zakree ahmad nazri, zulaiha ali othman.  (2011).  dfind : an intelligent system for financial statement deviation detection.  - international conference on business intelligence and financial engineering. icbife 2011, dec 12-13, 2011. hong kong. 

abdullah s., golafshan l., nazri m.z.a..  (2011).  re-heat simulated annealing algorithm for rough set attribute reduction.  - international journal of physical sciences.  6(8):2083-2089. 

masri ayob, ghaith m. jaradat, abdul razak hamdan, hafiz mohd sarim; mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2011).  solving the viva presentations timetabling problem: a case study at ftsm-ukm.  - 2011 international conference on electrical engineering and informatics, iceei 2011; bandung. 

azuraliza abu bakar, nurfathehah idris, abdul razak hamdan, zalinda othman, mohd zakree ahmad nazari, suhaila zainudin.  (2011).  classification models for outbreak detection in oil and gas pollution area..  - international conference on electrical engineering and informatics (iceei), 2011 bandung. 

abdullah, salwani ; sabar, nasser r. ; nazri, mohd zakree ahmad ; turabieh, hamza ; mccollum, barry ;.  (2010).  a constructive hyper-heuristics for rough set attribute reduction.  - 2010 10th international conference on intelligent systems design and applications (isda). 

misinem, azuraliza abu bakar, abdul razak hamdan
and mohd zakree ahmad nazri.  (2010).  a rough set outlier detection based on particle swarm optimization.  - 2010 10th international conference on intelligent systems design and applications. 

mohammed albared, nazlia omar, mohd. juzaiddin ab aziz, mohd zakree ahmad nazri,.  (2010).  automatic part of speech tagging for arabic: an experiment using bigram hidden markov model.  - lecture notes in artificial intelligence. 

mohd zakree ahmad nazri, siti mariyam hj. shamsuddin, azuraliza abu bakar:.  (2010).  clonal selection algorithm for learning concept hierarchy from malay text.  - lecture notes in artificial intelligence (rskt 6401) springer. 

nazri, mza; shamsuddin, sm; abu bakar, a; abdullah, s.  (2009).  a hybrid approach for learning concept hierarchy from malay text using gahc and immune network.  - artificial immune systems, proceedings. 

nazri m.z.a., bakar a.a., shamsudin s.m., ghani t.a..  (2008).  using linguistic patterns in fca-based approach for automatic acquisition of taxonomies from malay text.  - proceedings - international symposium on information technology 2008, itsim. 

mohd zakree ahmad nazri, siti mariyam shamsudin, azuraliza abu bakar.  (2008).  an exploratory study on malay processing tool for acquisition of taxonomy.  - eighth international conference on intelligent systems design and applications, isda 2008. 

abdul razak hamdan, mohd zakree ahmad nazri, mohammad faidzul nasrudin, hafiz mohd sarim, mohd shanudin zakaria, yazrina yahya dan mohd zamri murah.  (2004).  teknologi maklumat & komunikasi.  - 384.